Role of water quality in aquaculture:-
Aquaculture is the rearing of aquatic organism aquaculture is the farming in water. The produce of aquaculture is called aqua food.
The aim of aquaculture to produce green revolution.
Important of water quality in Aquaculture:-
Fishes are totally depend upon water to breath, feed, excrete, maintenance salt balance and reproduce so understanding the physical &chemical quality of water is important for successful aquaculture.
The role of water quality in aquaculture is very important which are describe below:-
- Physical characteristics of water
- Water balance in fish
- Source in fish
- Water quality
- Physical factor of water
Physical characteristics of water:-
Water is the universal solvent. Which can hold large amount of heat with a relatively small change of temperature water has vary unique density quantities as it get denser. When it cool. In ice water , water increase in volume by 11pervent . The physical characteristics of water for aquaculture describe below:-
Source of water:-
Water is always limiting factor for commercial fish production. The most common source for water used for aquaculture are ponds spring, river lacks ground water wells etc. Of these source spring & wells are considerate to be consistently of high quality.
The quality of water required for commercial fish productions generally 13gpm (gallons per minute). Required for each surface acer of ponds which include replacement of water loss in evaporation.
Water balance in fish:-
The elimination of waste product like amonia in fishes depends upon heavily on their gills for their function as fish gills permeable to water and salt. Marine fishes drink large amount of sea water and excrete small amount of highly salt urin.
Physical factor of water:-
The physical factor of water are describe below:-
Water temperature may be the single most important factor affecting the development of fish as their cold blooded organism and also affecting the activity, behavior feeding, growth and reproduction of all fishes . fishes are categories warm water, cold water species.
Temperatures also determine the amount of dissolve gases in the water. As temperatures increase circulation is prevent between the 2layers of water as density differs. Localised dissolved oxygen depletion posses a real problem of the fish farmers.
Suspended solid water are:-
- Fish wastes
- Clay particles
Chemical factors of water are describe below:-
Common dissolve gases are oxygen, nitrogen, amonia. The different dissolve gas are:-
Dissolve oxygen is most important chemical parsec meter, low dissolve oxygen levels are responsible for more fish skills either directly or indirectly. A good rule to maintain deo level at saturation or at least 5pm.
Carbon dioxide is commonly found in water from photosynthesis or water sources or genating from life stone bearing rocks. Fish can tolerance 10ppm of dissolve carbon dioxide concentration.
Dissolve gases specially nitrogen are measure in term% saturation. A gas with super saturation level above 110% is usually consider problematic gas bubble disease is a symptoms of gas supper saturation.
Treatment of gas bubble disease involved sufficient aeration to decrease the gas to saturation or below.
Fish excrete ammonia and lesser amount of urea into the water is waste. Two forms of ammonia unionised from of ammonia is extremely toxic while the ionised form not.
The acceptable ph range for fish culture is normally between 6.5 to 9.0.
It is recommend that the fish former maintain total alkalinity value of at least 20ppm for fish production.
Water hardness is Chieflly a measure of ca&mg, but other ions such as Ac, Fe, manganese, zinc and hydrogen ions are included. Hardness value of at least 20ppm should be maintain for optimum growth for aquatic organism.
Other metal & gases:-
Other metals such as Na & gases such as Hydrogen sulfide may be sometimes present create special problem to fish farmers.
Photosynthesis is the most important biological activity in standing pond aquaculture many water quality parameters are regulated by the photosynthesis reaction.