Beekeeping is the rearing of honey bees for the production of the bee products. Langstroth hive & Newton’s hive are generally the main role play in the Beekeeping methods. These are another called modern bee keeping methods. It has given below:-
Bee hive were designed after the discovery of bee space or bee passage by langstroth.
Langstroth hive is a modern hive. It was developed by Langstroth in 1851. It’s commonly used by 75% of the words bee reeper. It’s suitable for the bee colony. It’s made up wood. It consists of the following parts:-
- Bottom border
- Brood chamber
- Queen excluder
- Supper chamber
- Crown board
It consists of four legs and the plate form.
- The bottom board is placed on the top of the stand. It’s made up of single place of wood or two piece of wood join together. The bottom board is a wooder plank of 5.6 cm and 41.33cm \2.2 cm is size.
- It’s provided with in a pair space of a centre. It’s extended by 10cm in front of the hive body as a platform for bees.
- The brood chamber is an open wooden box containing brood frames. The brood chamber is placed.
- The size of the brood chamber is 50.8cm /40.6cm/23.4cm . Its a box containing comb frames. Brood chamber can hold 10frams length and height of the frame is 20.5cm/14cm.
- Brood chamber is used laying eggs and to keep brood and entrance is present between the bottom board and the brood chamber.
4.Queen excluder :-
A queen excluder is above the brood chamber. It prevent the entry of the queen into the brood chamber. It’s a performed zinc sheet mounted on a wooden frame. The size of the pore on the zinc sheet is 3.5 cm.
- The supper chamber is kept above the queen excluder the length width height of this chamber one 27cm, 25cm and 15cm.
- The supper chamber is also filled with ten comb frames. The super chamber is used to store honey and pollen.
6. Crown board :-
The crown board is placed above the super chamber. A crown board is provided with a central ventilation whole covered with air granze.
7. Roof board:-
The roof is kept above the crown board. It’s a flat. The roof is covered with a metallic sheet to make it inpervious to rain water. It provides as weather protection for the hives.
The Newton hive is the most popular type of honey bee hive in many parts of the towards. It simple construction and standardized design makes it the obvious 1st choice of the bee keeper. It’s used for rearing honey bees, this modern artificial hive was 1st designed by Newton is 1999.It’s movable frame hive used for rearing honey bees. It’s commonly used for Indian bee Keeper. It’s useful to rear small colony.
The Newton’s hive consist of six components they are:-
- Floor board
- Brood chamber and brood frames
- Queen excluder
- Super chamber and super frames
- Top covers
The stand keep the hive above the ground. The stand is two types, namely:
(a) A pole stand
(a) Pole stand:-
It’s a single wooden pole of 10cm diameter. The pole is soaked in a wood preservative or a mix of engine oil and paint thinner to prevent termites and ants. The lower end of the stand is buried deep in the ground leaving about 20cm -30cm above the ground. The top of the stand has a platform. The hive is placed on the platform.
(b) Leg stand:-
The leg stand has four legs. The legs stand is placed on the ground. The top of the stand has platform. The hive is placed on the platform.
- Floor stand (Bottom board) :-
It form the floor of the hive and is made up of a single piece of wood or two piece of wood join together. It measures 36cm/24cm /2.3cm in size. It has an entrance slit of 8.89cm/0.97cm.The boad is extended by 10cm in front of hive body.
It provides a landing platform for bees.
- Brood chamber:-
Brood chamber is an open wooden box containing brood comb frames. It’s placed over the bottom board. It measure about 9.75 inch/8.25inch/6.75inch.
The four sides of the chamber and joined by special joint between the broad chamber and the floor board, there is an entrace of 8.89cm / 0.97cm in size above the floor board. It contains 7brood frames. A brood frame has a top bar, two sides bars and a bottom bar. It looks like a slate frame. It measures 20.95cm / 140.6cm / 15.24cm in size. The brood frame contain comb foundation sheet . It is used for laying egg and to keep the brood.
- Queen excluder:-
Queen excluder is a board used to keep the queen inside the brood chamber and to prevent it to enter the super chamber. It is a perforated like slit mounted on a wooden frame. The size of the pore is 3.5mm. It’s kept between brood chamber and super chamber. It can allow the workers to pass through but prevent the queen. It’s useful to un fine the queen to brood chamber. It prevent the queen to laying eggs in the honey bees comb.
The queen excluder is used to prevent to escape the queen from the hive.
- Super chamber:-
It’s an open wooden box containing honey comb frame. It’s called super chamber because it’s placed over the brood chamber is placed over the queen excluder. It measures about 9.75 inch /8.25inch/6.75inch.It contains super frames. There are seven super frames. The super frames contains foundation comb sheet. It is used to store honey and pollen. Some Newton and hive contain two super chamber.
- Top cover:-
It’s placed over the super chamber. It has two sloping planks. The super surface of the cover is covered with zinc or tin sheet. There are two holes covered with air mesh on the cover for ventilation.
1.Advantage of Newton’s hive:-
- The advantage of Newton’s hive are described below. The hive is fixed firmly to stand . This facilities easy harvesting and bee keeper has a little fear of damaging the comb.
- Honey extracted by means of centrifugal honey extractor which have make it possible to remove the honey without damaging the comb.
- The comb can be reused.
- During hive operation very few honey bees are crashed between the frames.
- Bee can be easily passed through the numerous space between the frames.
- Bees are protected form enemies and weather.
2.Disadvantages of Newton’s Hives:-
- A high degree of craftsmanship is required to build the hive.
- Good quality of wood is needed, wood for frame construct on must be seasoned for at least a year.
- To need to keep a stock of frames to replace those removed during the honey harvest creat an additional cast.
The plants that also yield both pollen and neefor are called bee pasturage. However honey bees gather neefor, pollen, propolis and water as their food. Neefor is a sweet secretions from a floral and extra flora blossoms which is the basic raw products of honey. Pasturage provide honey bees. Which are describe below:—–
- Bee collection:
- Pollen is a highly proteinaceous food for bees and the plant that produce only pollen are called pollen plants. Pollen provide the bees all their requirements of vitamins&minerals.
- The propolis resinous substance which is gather from buds and bark of trees like chest nut and wound of woody plants. It’s mainly used for sealing of cracks in the hives and reducing the size of entrance.
- Water is required inside the hive to regulate the temperature and to dilute store of honey which is mostly collected in yearly spring & hot summer before the supply of nector is readily available.
- Foraging behaviour of bees:–
The honey bee start it’s foraging activities in the morning depending on the weather &the temperatures. The bees will not leave the hive if the temperature is very high and the wind speed is above 30km/hour.
Most of the bees returns home carrying lood of nector, pollen or both. Bees frequently change the activity during the some days.