Honey extraction techniques: Apiculture

Honey extraction techniques:-

Removing honey from the honey comb is called honey extraction . The process of honey extraction need the following components.

  • Honey extractor
  • Uncapping knife
  • Uncapping tray
  • Straining clothes
  • Collecting vessel
  • Bottles

The honey extraction is done in a honey extraction house situated away from the hive and the honey extraction is done by the following way.

Remove honey frames from the hive:-

  • These 1st step for the honey extraction is to the frames was taken from the hives. It’s essential to wear protective Cloth then removing frames of honey from hives.
  • The number of frames depends on many factors include strength of colony. Weather and amount of nector available to the bees. One frame is removed at a time and gently brush off the bees from the colony taken away.

The equipment:-

  • It includes honey extractor, uncapping knife, uncapping tray, straining clothe collecting vessel, bottles.

Uncapping the frames:-

  • Removal of cap from the comb is called uncapping. Uncapping is done in the uncapping tray with the help of uncapping knife. The uncapping kaife should be kept work for easy uncapping most frames have honey on both sides. So each side need to be uncap from both side.

Spinning the frames:-

  • Four uncapped frames are placed into the extractor and are held in a metal mesh basket. The lid is closed and the handle cranked for a minute or more.
  • The honey is forced out of the comb and drifts down the inside of the extractor. Once the spinning stops, the frames are taken out the spinning stops, the frames are taken out and honey is removed from the outside of the frames.
  • The honey extractor may be redial or tangential in tangential extractor the combs are arranged facing the cage.
  • In the radial extractor the combs are arranged radially like the spokes of a wheel.
  • Honey extractor work by centrifugal force and honey extractor extract the honey from the honey comb with out crushing.

Collection of honey:-

  • When honey start filling up at the bottom of the extractor, it’s necesary  to upon up the valve and let honey flow into the weighting bocket.
  • Honey is collected in a collecting vessel.

Filter the honey:-

  • Filter the collected honey using a straining clothes. After filtering the honey is allowed to stand for about 24hours.this will release the air bubble finally the honey is pured into a bottle for storage. After honey extraction comb are reused.

Melting of wax:-

  • A lot of wax is found during uncapping. Wax can be marketed for making lotion and furniture polish.

Physico-chemical analysis of Honey:-

  • Honey is a sweet, aromatic material collected of honey bees from the nector of the plants. It’s stored in the storage cell of honey combs as food for bees. Bees collected nector from the flowers. The enzymes digest the nector is regurgitated into the storage cell. Thus honey is the digested, regurgitated and found nector.

COMPOSITION OF HONEY BEES:-

Honey consists of following components:

pigment:-

  • Carotene
  • Chlorophyll
  • Xanthophyll are the important pigment prevent in honey.

Minerals:-

  • Potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper, sulphur, cilium and the minerals present in honey.

Chemical composition of honey:

Honey is a natural products of nector possessed by honey bee. It consist of the following components.

  • Water-17%
  • Glucose-31%
  • Fructose-38%
  • Sucrose-1.3%
  • Other sugar-9%
  • Total acid-0. 57%
  • Ash-0. 97%
  • Nitrogen-0. 04%

Besides the above constituent vitamins , enzymes, proteins are present in honey.

Properties of honey:-

  • Honey is a sticky, viscous fluid.
  • It’s a semisolid state.
  • Honey is a highly concentrated water solution of two sugar glucose and fructose.
  • The colour of the honey varies depending of the original flowers source of the honey.
  • The colour range from pale yellow to a darkish red amber to nearby black.
  • Honey bee high viscosity.
  • Heating of honey reduce viscosity.
  • Sp, gravity of pure honey is 1.35gm/cc-1.44gm/cc.
  • Due to presence of sugar it can rotate the plane of polarised light.
  • When the honey loses water  the glucose, fructose present in the honey forms crystal.
  • It can absorb moisture.
  • The honey is acidic in nature.

Nutritional value of honey:-

  • Honey is full of energy since it contains carbohydrate.
  • It provide ready energy.
  • At teaspoon of honey liberate 100cal.
  • It’s usefull in releasing dryness of mouth &body.
  • It’s a natural sugar play important role in prevention fatigue during exercise.

Medicinal value:-

Honey plays an important role in madicine which are described below:-

  • It act as an antibiotics.
  • Honey posses antibacterial property.
  • Honey is more effective in digestion.
  • Minerals found in honey acid in blood circulation.
  • Honey can cure, burns and sore throat.
  • It protects the skin and eyes.
  • Honey is also used to trat caught, cold and intestinal disorder.
  • It promote the growth of healthy tissue.
  • Honey cure headache due to sleeplessness.
  • It act as a medicine to cure jaundice .
  • It good for kidney patient.
  • It’s used as medicine for bed resting children.

 

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