Heart disease or cardiac disease includes various disease responsible for dysfunctioning of the regular cardiac function. Broad types of heart diseases are the following:

(a) Coronary heart disease or Ischaemic heart disease:

Ischaemic heart disease(IHD) include those disorders which involve inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle compared to it’s needs, caused by blocking of coronary vessels of the heart. The first sign of IHD is Angina pectoris with  symptoms of unbearable chest pain. This is not all fatal. This is followed by Myocardial infraction caused due to damaged heart muscles following lack of oxygen supply. It is very fatal and leads to heart failure or sudden cardiac arrest. About 25% to 30% of death in the industrialised countries is due to the  IHD.

(b) Hypertensive heart disease:

This is caused due to hypertensive or  high blood pressure. It is predominantly a circulatory disorder is atherosclerosis, in which the cholesterol is deposited inside the lumen of the arteries leading to the hardening of the artery with reduced lumen. The lack of elasticity of the artery and it’s narrow lumen reduce the blood flow.

(c) Infective heart disease:

This is caused due to rheumatic infections. The valves of the heart are mostly affected  to the heart are mostly affected leading to the leakage of blood between the chambers of the heart.

(d) Idiopathic heart disease:

Such disease include cardiac myopathy in which the electrical conduction in the heart muscle is improper leading to irregular centractions and expansions of the heart. The cause may be genetic or addiction to drugs.


  1. High serum cholesterol enhances the risk of myocardial infraction.
  2. Low density lipoproteins(LDL) is directly associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
  3. Risk of heart attack is 2-32-3 times higher in case of diabetic patients.
  4. Sedentary life style with lack of exercise.
  5. Oral contraception taken by females enhances the risk of heart attack.


  • Reduction in fat intake (mainly saturated fat). Low density lipoprotein enhances the risk of heart attack; where’s high density lipoprotein(HDL) is protective against heart disease.
  • Reduction of body weight and blood pressure.
  • Regular exercise and physical labour.
  • Consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains etc.
  • Less salt in the diet, i.e, less than 5gms per day.
  • No smoking and no alcohol.


Some common treatments of cardiac are:

  1. Several drugs available in the market to check blood pressure and self clottingclotting blood in the arteries.
  2. Implantation of pace maker to regularise heart beat.
  3. Coronary bypass surgery to avoid circulation though defective coronary vessel.


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