Preparation & maintenance of fish Aquarium:-
Aquarium is a tank with colourfull fishes & plants maintain for human recreation.
Aims of aquaria:-
The aims of aquaria are:-
- Scientific studies
Requirements of an Aquarium:-
The following things are required for Aquarium:-
- A tank with glass slides
- Fluorescent light
- Diffuser stones
- Feeding ring
- Siphon tube
- Colourful fishes
- Aquatic plants
Setting an Aquarium:-
Setting of aquarium take place in the following step:-
Step-1: Decide on an Aquarium size:-
Before purchase an aquarium. It is necessary to setup in mind what kind of fresh water aquarium is necessary. Some fish only grow to be an inch Or 2inch . Where as other type of fish grow 12inch to 13inch or more in length. So it is necessary to find what kind of fish wanted and according to size of the fish the tank will be purchase.
Step-2: Decide on the Aquarium location:-
A suitable site is selected in a house, hotel or office. The aquarium should be installed near a window so that diffuse light should passed through the tank this will give clear vision of the fish and plants.
Step:3 Buy your Aquarium & equipment:-
After that, it is good time to decide on the type of aquarium filter you want to use. It also need to purchase a heater capable for heating fresh water aquaria gravels, aquatic plants &other decorative equipments should be bought. The amount of gravel will be needed 1pound to 1.5pound of gravel or gallon of water.
Step-4: set up an aquarium & stand:-
The tank should be placed on a stand of good look. The tank should wash out water only surf or detergent should not be used.
Step:5 Wash gravel, plants duration:-
The gravel was washed though before adding it to the tank. Then the clean gravel was placed in a 5 gallon bucket for transfer to the aquarium. After adding the gravel plants & other decorative are placed in the aquarium.
Step:6 Add to the aquarium:-
To the missing up gravel and plants a plate is placed in the middle of aquarium and the water flow is directed into the plate. The temperature of water should be maintained on room temperature. The aquarium should not be fillup completely.
Step:7 Set up equipment:-
The aquarium fish required a optimum temperature which range from 22°c to 26°c . It is measure by the thermometer. The aquarium tank must be fitted with thermostat. The thermostat may be external or internal. The thermostat is connected to electric heater. When the temperature of fish tank goes down the thermostat switch on the heater. When the temperature goes up the thermostat switch off the heater.
Step:8 Preparation before adding fish:-
It must be used fish to cycle and try to get a hardier species like cherry barb. The fish tank cycle will be cloudy Aquarium water after few days.
Step:9 Add decorative fish:-
The fish introduced into the tank after a week. Non agressive fish introduced. Agressive fishes may killed other fish. Agressive fishes such as fighters. These tank is called agressive tank. The fishes are disinfected with 2% potassium permanent solution before introducing into the tank. The no. Fish is determined by the surface area of the tank 1cm long fish may need 75sq cm of the surface area.
Step:10 Get ready for regular maintenance:-
The aquarium tank should be cleaned once in every week. The fish are feed with 2 times in a day. The only required amount of feed should be given. The feed may be placed in the feeding ring fixed on the surface of the water.
The fish should be given live feed & artificial feed alternatively.
Preparation of compounds diets for fishes:-
For proper growth of fish nutrition is provided in form of natural add artificial food.
- Natural food
- Artificial food
The natural food of fish consists of plankton which are algae, protozoans, microscopic invertebrates and theres eggs & larvae Annelids, snails, insects & small fish etc. For culture of fishes it is essential to supply proper food for rapid growth.
Artificial food given to the fish for better production and to enrich the food by ingredients which are deficient in it.
Feed for different development stage of fish:-
The different development stage fishes & their feeds are –
- Eggs :- The larvae come out from the hatching eggs.
- Larvae:- After the larvae consume the yolk as it feed naturally in leaf feeds such as rotifers, copepods etc.
- Fry:- The actively feeding larvae are called fry. They start feeding on phytoplankton then zoo plankton.
- Juvenile stage:- Along with netural food, artificial foods are given as supplement for speedy growth and development as to adult stage.
Balancing of natural food & artificial food:-
Ideally 50:50ratio both types of food natural & artificial recommended. But the ration can be changed as per the requirement of fishes a ratio beyond 75 is not recommendable.
An ideal feed should have a balance of a bio larvae energy with essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins mineral etc.
Characteristics of food formulation:-
Characteristics of food formulation are as follows:-
- It should contains all important food material in a balanced weight.
- The ingredient must be selected considering their chemical composition nutritional value availability cost efficiency.
- The ingredient must have specifically for energy content or nutrients content.
The list of commonly used ingredient are :-cotton feed, soyabin cake, coconut cake mustard cake, silk warm meal, potato, rice, rice brown, bazra, wheat etc.
In the above food silk worm meal contain more protein percentage (69.8%) & wheat will more energy (3045 kcal per kg)
Method of feed formulation:-
The protein content of the available foods are classic by according to their content and cost the food is selected basing on the protein percentage and energy level require. The amount and pro protein of different ingredient is calculated.
Balancing of vitamins and minerals:–
Vitamins 2%to 5% and 10gm to 20gms of minerals are added to 100kg of feed.
Competition of feed ingredients:–
For the computation food ingredient Pearson’s square method is simple method.
Selection of to protein feed which are:-
- Rice bran (8.2% of protein)
- Soyabin meal(40% of protein)
To prepared feed with 27%protein for carp.
On the true left corner rice bran with 8.2% and on the lower left corner soyabin meal with 44% is retained.
This formulation the desert protein level as 27% retained in the center. 17 and 18.8 are the diagonal difference in the base value retained in the right corner and buttom value. This gives 17+18.8= 35.8unit . Which is the base value.
So act of the 35.8unit 17unit coile rice bran and 18.8units will be soyabin meal.
Percentage of soyabin mean unit is 18.8/35.8×100=52.5%
Therefore to prepared a feed of 100kg 47.5 kg of rice bran and 52.5kg of soyabin meal must be taken.
It is a no. of feeds administrative to fishes per day. These depend on the stage of fishes. The fish fry given 4 to 6 per day but the adult required 1-2 feeding per day.
The feeds should be over distributed over the pond and overfeeding must be avoid. Frequency of feeding should be adjusted according to temperatures.