It is regarded as the dreadful killer of the 20th Century. It is next to cardiac disease in the developed countries, as far as the virulence is concerned. It accounts for 9%of the total mortality throughout the world. By the end of 20th Century, out of 50million deaths in the world per year, 5million would be due to cancer. This may touch the mark of 8million by the beginning of 21th Century. Cancer can be regarded as a group of diseases characteristics by (a) abnormal rate of division of cell, (b) ability of this division to invade adjacent tissues or even distant organs, (c) eventual death due to the failure in interrupting this rapid division of cells etc. A tumour (mass of dividing cells) is either bening Or malignant. A bening growth is localised and never spreads to any other part of the body. It is malignant when it spreads to other tissues (metastasis). This metastatic phase leads to progressive disorder and death. Major categories of cancer are : (1) Carcinomas– rapid division of epithelial cells.  (2) Sarcomas– rapid division of mesodermal cells.  (3) Lymphomas–when cells of bone-marrow are affected.  Some preliminary symptoms indicating a possible carcinoma are:
  • A lump or hard area at unusual site.
  • Sudden change in wart or mole.
  • Sudden change in digestive or bowel habit.
  • Persistent cough or hoarseness in voice.
  • Excessive bleeding during menstrual cycle.
  • Blood loss from natural orifice (anusaar etc.)
  • Sore not getting cured for long.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
Any of the above symptoms needs immediate medical attention. predominant type of cancer are:
  1. Stomach cancer- both the sexes. 
  2. Lung Cancer- commonest in males. 
  3. Cervical Cancer-females in males. 
  4. Breast Cancer-         –do–
  5. Bone Cancer- both the sexes. 
  6. Rectal Cancer-        –do–
  7. Lymphomas-          –do–
  8. Leukaemia-         do–
Among all the above types, stomach cancer heads the list followed by lung cancer . Females are more prone to cancer than the males. About 50%of the total cases of cancer are the cancer are the cancer of uterine cervix in females and oropharynx in both males and females. CAUSES OF CANCER :
  1. Environmental factors account for 80%to 90%of the total cases of cancer. Smoking of tabacco, consumption of alcohol, air pollution etc. are some of important factors.
  2. Diet is also a very important factor of smoked fish may lead to stomach cancer. Consumption of beef may cause bowel cancer, consumption of high fat diet may cause breast cancer and excess consumption of fibrous food(leafy vegetables, legumes etc.) prevents colon cancer.
  3. Occupational factors like exposure to X-ray, Cadmium, arsenic and chromium could cause cancer.
  4. Some cancer are caused as a result of viral infection. Virus causing Hopkins disease, T-cell leukaemia virus and human papilloma virus are the common examples.
  5. Cancers like retinoblastema and leukaemia are genetical in organ. Mongols are more prone to leukaemia.
TREATMENT : No satisfactory treatment has yet been developed to cure cancer. Most effective treatment is the surgical removal of the affected tissue before metastasis. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the other two common treatments to arrest mitosis of the affected cells. However, an early detection makes the disease 100% curable, but in case of late detection after metastasis, chance of survival are zero percent.

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