BRANCHES OF ZOOLOGY
The living organisms consist of different types of plants, animals and micro organisms. As this is the age of specialisation. Biology has been divided into different branches to acquire better knowledge about different aspects of organisms.
PURE BRANCHES OF ZOOLOGY
These branches deals with general aspects of the living organisms.
1. Morphology : Every organism has its own external features. Study of external structure of the plants and animals is called as morphology. It has two aspects, (i) external morphology and (ii) internal morphology.
2. Anatomy : Study of internal structure of the individual is known as Anatomy.
3. Histology : It is the study of tissues and tissue system which form the organs.
4. Cytology or Cell Biology : Study of structure and function of the cell and cellular organelles in different types of cells of plants and animals is known as cytology.
5. Genetics : It is the study of heredity, which deals with the scientific basis of resemblances and dissimilarities of organisms with their parents.
6. Physiology : It is the study of functions of different parts of the organ systems of the animal and plant body.
7. Embryology or Developmental Biology : Every organism develops from a zygote and passes through various embryonic stages till it reaches the adult stage. It deals with the embryonic development of the individual.
8. Ecology or Environmental Biology : It is the study of the relationship between the organisms and their environment.
9. Endocrinology : It deals with the study of structure and function of ductless glands or endocrine glands, which secrete hormone. These endocrine glands like pithitary, thyroid etc. forms the endocrine system of the animal.
10, Palaeontology : It is the study of fossils or the preserved remains. Palaeozoolgy deals with the study of fossils of animals.
11. Evolution : It deals with the origin of life, its gradual change and descent of new forms of organisms.
12. Pathology : It is the study of origin, symptoms and effect of diseases in plants and animals.
13. Economic Zoology : It deals with the animals and animal products which are either beneficial or harmful to man.
14. Systematics or Taxonomy : It is the study of identification, nomenclature and classification of plants and animals. It helps in storing the information about living organisms.
15. Parasitology : It is the study of parasites and host-parasite relationship among plants and an mals.
16. Micro Biology : It deals with the study of micro-organisms. It is divided into Bacteriology L.e. study of bacteria and virology i.e., study of virus.
17. Space-biology : It is the study of life in space. It is a new branch, as man is searching for life in space.
18. Marine Zoology : It is the study of marine organisms.
19. Medicine : Treatment of diseases with drugs.
APPLIED BRANCHES OF ZOOLOGY :
These branches deal with the beneficial aspects of human beings.
1. Apiculture : It deals with the culture of honey bee and production and procurement of honey.
2. Animal Husbandry : It is the study of domestication, breeding, rearing, health care and economic importance of animals.
3. Fishery (Pisciculture) : It deals with the rearing of edible fishes, in man-managed aqua-cultures.
4. Gerontology : It is the study of ageing in living organisms.
5. Euthenics : It deals with the influence of environment on the growth of human race and culture.
6. Eugenics : It deals with the improvement of human race by selective breeding, on the basis of genetics.
7. Hygiene : It deals with the maintenance of good health of organisms.
8. Lac-culture : It is the study of culture of insects producing shellac. flesh.
9. Poultry : It deals with the rearing of chickens for eggs and
10. Soil Zoology : It is the study of organisms in soil.
11. Sericulture : The study concerning rearing of silkworms for production of commercial silk.
12. Pearlculture : This branch deals with methods of pearl production from bivalve molluscans.
13. Cryobiology : The study of preserving of an organism or specific organs at very low temperature.
14. Space biology : Study of living organisms in outer space.
15. Bioinformatics : It is the process of biological data feeding, storing and analysizing them through computers.
16. Pharmacy : It is the process of preparing and compounding medicines.
17. Psychobiology : It is the study of animal psychology.
18. Molecular biology : It deals with the study of physico-chemical organisation of biomolecules.
19. Exobiology : It deals with possibility of existence of life in outer space i.e. in other planets.
20. Nosology : Study of diseases.
ORGANISM ORIENTED BRANCHES
These branches deal about a particular group of animal.
1. Protozoology : It is the study of Protozoans.
2. Helminthology : Study of Helminthes is known as helminthology.
3. Entomology : It is the study of all types of Insects.
4. Carcinology : Study of Crustaceans, a type of arthropod, is known as carcinology.
5. Malacology : It is the study of Molluscs which are found on land and in water.
6. Ichthyology : It is the study of different types of Fishes.
7. Herpetology : It is the study of Reptiles.
8. Ophiology : Study of Snakes is called as Ophiology.
9. Ornithology : Study of both flying and non-flying birds is called as mithology.
10. Mammalogy : Study of mammals is called as mammology.
11. Acarology : Ticks and Mines are studied under the branch of zoology, called acarology.
12. Conchology : Study of Shells of molluscs is known as conchology.
13. Parazoology : Study of sponges.
14. Parasitology : Study of parasites.
15. Bacteriology : Study of bacteria.
16. Virology : Study of viruses.
17. Nematology : Study of nematodes (round worms).
18. Cnidology : Study of coelenterates.
19. Microbiology : Study of microscopic organisme.
20. Saurology : Study lizards.
21. Parazoology : Study of sponges.
22: Cetology : Study of whales.
ORGAN ORIENTED BRANCHES
These branches study in detail, about a particular organ system, organ or specific tissue of the body.
1. Osteology : It is the study of bones.
2. Neurology : Study of structure and function of nerves is known as neurology.
3. Cardiology : It is the study of heart, blood and blood vessels in animals.
4. Arthrology : Study of joints is cal arthrology.
5. Phenology : It is the study of organisms, affected by seasonal climate, like migration of birds.
6. Rhinology : Study of nose and olfactory organs is called as rhinology.
7. Tricology : Study structure of hairs is called as tricology.
8. Ophthalmology : Study of eye and vision is known as ophthalmology.
9. Gynaecology : Study of female reproductive organs is known as gynaecology.
10. Dermatology : Study of structure and function of skin is known as dermatology.
11. Haematology : It deals with the study of various aspects of blood.
12. Hepatology : Study of liver.
13. Immunology : It deals with the defence mechanism of the body.
14. Myology : Study of muscles. This branch is also called sarcology.
15. Nephrology : Study of kidneys.
16. Odonotology : Study of teeth.
17. Urology : Study of urinary tract.
18. Serology : Study of blood serum and blood circulation.
19. Otology : Study of Ears.
20. Proctology : Study of hind gut and rectum.
These branches relates biology with other branches of science.
1. Bio-physics : It is the study of different activities of living matters based on the principles of physics.
2. Bio-chemistry : The body of living organisms are composed of chemical substances. The application of laws of chemistry leads to the study of bio-chemistry.
3. Bio-metrics : It deals with the application of statistics in biology.
4. Radio-biology : It is the study of effects of radioactivity on life.
5. Biomedical Engineering : The branch of engineering dealing with production of artificial limbs, machine and spare parts for the human body.
6. Bio-technology : It deals with the employment of micro organisms for commercial production of various useful products for man and animals.
7. Dairy Technology : The application of science for the manufacture of milk products.
8. Zoo-geography : It is the study of distribution of animals in different geographical conditions on the surface of the earth.
9. Trophorogy : It is the study of food and nutrition.
10. Taxidermy : Stuffing animals for preservation in museum.
1. Traumatology : Study of wounds
2. Syndesmology : Study of joints and ligaments.
3. Hypnology : Study of sleep.
4. Ctetology : Study of acquired characters.
5. Dactylography : Study of fingerprints for study of identification.
6. Dysteleology : Study of functionless rudimentary organs.
7. Nidology : Study of bird’s nest.
8. Neontology : Study of life of recent origin.