Beneficial product from honey bees:Apiculture

Beneficial products from honey bees:

Honey is a sweet, aromatic material collected by honey bees from the nector of the plant. Beside honey several important and honey fetching by products are also obtained from honey bees, these are:-

  • Pollen
  • Propolis
  • Royal jelly
  • Bee wax 
  • Bee venom

Pollen:-

Pollen grain appear as tiny or white or golden spe.

Value of pollen for bees:-

  • Plant nector and pollen are the insensitive that flower used to encourage bees to visits them.
  • Nector and pollen are only food source for honey bees. Nector is mainly source of carbohydrates for honey production while pollen provides all of the nutrients essential for honey bee development and growth.
  • The honey bees are beautifully adopted for collecting pollen and packing it into the basket on the back of legs. A bee colour collects for its own consumption, on average quantity 20kg-50kg pollen per year pollen is marketed in different plants of the world which fetch good return.

Propolis:-

  • Apis melifera collect resins and gums from which buds or injured are a of plants. This glue like substance usually dark Brown in colour and it’s called propolis propolis before in composition according to the plants from which bees collected. Propolis usually dark brown in colour but it can be also yellow, green or red. Stingless bees are use large amount of resin in their nest construction. The bees bites off serap of plants resin with her mandibles and packed them into the Corbicula on her hind legs. Each corbicula can carry about longs of propolis. Propolis is only collected when the temperature is above 18°c.

Constitutes of propolis:-

  • The constituents of propolis depends upon the foregoing plants propolis commonly contains over 300 constituents. Major substance present in propolis are flevenoids, organic acid and aldehyde, various alcohol &other organic molecules, minerals, steroids &sugar.
  • The solvent for propolis includes ethanol and other alcohol in organic solvents.

The usage of propolis by bees:-

  • Apis melifera used propolis to keep theirs home dry, drought proof & hygiene.

Use of the propolis by human :-

  • Antiseptic and anaesthetic property and is commonly used as an ingredients in medicine, toothpaste, oral spray, chew gum , shampoo, soap, cosmetics &ointment.

Royal jelly:-

  • Royal jelly is a milkey white liquid. It is food for honey bees larval secreted from salivary gland complex and the chief are of which is the hypopharyngeal gland of nurse worker bees.
  • Royal jelly also contains same sugar &protein added for the warker bee stomach.
  • Royal jelly contains many insect growth hormone toxic medicine by people of many parts of the world.
  • Royal jelly has many different components including sugar, fats  minerals proteins and vitamins.

Royal jelly production:-

  • In some country like china, Thailand- Royal jelly is harvest and marketed commercial honey bee colonies  are manipulate to start producing great number of queen (50 or more) to produce Royal jelly for harvest. There for worker bees produce vast amount of Royal jelly (feeding extra sugar to the colony is needed to achieve this) and placed in the queen cell. How ever instead of the larvae feeding on this and developing into queen bees, the larvae are removed and the royal jelly in harvested.

Market for Royal jelly:-

  • The main market of Royal jelly is Japan and lesser amount imported by other industrialize country.

Bee wax:-

  •  Bee wax is the ester of fatty acid. It’s stick and insoluble in water. Bee wax is secreted by warker bees to construct the comb. It’s the bee sweet.

Production of bee wax:-

  • The wax is produced by worker bees. The worker bees have 8wax gland. The ambient temperature for wax secretion in the hive is 33°c-36°c.
  • It’s synthesizer by reducing sugar of nector. It’s generally secreted in the form of wax scale. The new wax scale are initially glass clear colourless and becoming opaque after Mestication by the worker bees. The wax scale are about 3mm across 1.5m wax scale are about 3mm across &0.1mm thick. It’s estimated that about 1.5m wax scale are required to produce one kg of wax.

Usage of bee wax:-

  • Oil obtained from bee wax is used to cure wound.
  • Bee wax is rich in vitamin k.
  • Bee wax is use to prepare ointment and Latin etc.
  • Candles are prepared from bee wax.
  • It’s used to prepare water proof materials.
  • It’s used as an insulator in electric goods.

Bee venom:-

  • Honey bees venom is a protein toxin secreted by the sting of honey bees.
  • It is a colour less clear liquid. It is sweet with little bitter taste.
  • Venom is harvested by submitting bees to electric fields. When they feel the electric shock, bees stings into metal gauze. Behind with in a glass sheet.
  • This is left for a few hours and after which dried venom is scraped from the glass sheet. It’s possible to harvested 1gm of venom. Which is equal to about 10,000 bee sting.

Usage :-

  • It is used to treat rheumatism. It has a beneficial effects on CNS which is impaired in this illness.
  • It is used to cure neurotic & neuroglia.
  • It is used to cure asthma.
  • It is used to remove scare tissue.
  • It is used to cure premenstrual syndrome.
  • It is used for bone heating.
  • It is used to cure hearings.

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