Rearing of honey bee or honey is called Apiculture.This term is derived from the scientific name of honey bee Apis. It is also called bee keeping.
Apiculture is a cottage industry and formally this industry is called bee keeping. L.L.Langstroth (Lorenz Lorraine Langstroth) is the Father of bee keeping.
- Genus:-Apis linnaeus
- Scientific Name:-Apis
- Life span:-Western honey bee:14-28days.
Honey bee is a flying domesticated insect . It belong to phylum-Arthropoda, order-Hymenoptera, family-Apidae and genus-Apis.
Six species of honey bee produce honey and genus-Apis, along with this bees of trigona and malipona genus are also famous for producing honey. These type of honey bees are almost available in all countries.
Honeybee of Apis Genus:
The honey bee of Apis genus are:-
(a) Apis Indica
(b) Apis Dorsata
(c) Apis flora
(d) Apis mellifera
(e) Apis Adamsoni
(f) Apis cerana
Honeybee of other genus:-
These are trigona & melipona.
(a) Apis Indica:-
Apis Indica generally called Indian honey bee. They have following character:-
- They are of medium size.
- They are very calm.
- They built their comb in dark place.
- Generally make their hive in plane area, they make their hive plant crack, corner of the house, crack of the wall.
Few of them make hive in hilly area.
- The bee species of hilly area become calm & brighter than the bees of the plane area.
- This type of bees use for comercial rising due to their available calm nature.
- They are yellowish brown in colour.
- They have 2types of comb – they are honey comb & brood comb.
- Each hive produces 3-6 kg honey in a year.
(b) Apis Dorsata:-
- This type of bees live in hilly area, so they are called Rock bees or monster bees.
- This bee is the biggest very ferocious nature among all the bee species.
- They are of blue colour. They are yellow colour palage in their back site.
- It is distribleted all over India. It build a single comb. Which is about 1.2m in height 1m in width.
- It is found hanging down from the rocks and branch of tall trees.
- The comb persists of hexagonal cells.
- The size of broods cells of workers and drone cells are equal.
- The Queen bee is easily distinguished by large size.
- The colour of the Queen Bee in darker than worker bee.
They change hive frequently, if they get disturbe they beat human and other animals the sting of Apis dorsatabecome very poisonus.
- A single colony can yield 47kg honey per year.
(c) Apis flora:-
- These are popularly called little bees. Among the bees species Apis flora is smallest in size.
- They live in a plane area & make hive in tree branch, plant cracks, wale cracks, roop corner.
- They make in a small hive which length about 10-15c.m.
- They frequently change living place ,they migrate from one place to other place at the regular interval of 5months.
- A single colony yield 200gm-500gm per yr honey.For this reason they are not use for comercial honey production.
- Their sting is not active.
- These bees are helpful to coordinate flowers.
(d) Apis mellifera:-
Europian bee this is the only honey bee producing bee species use in Europe country and thus called Europian bees.
America, Africa and many country of Europe rise Apis mellifera widly for commercial honey production they generally make hive in the corner of the house.
- They are Reddish yellow in colour.
- They are domestic and very suitable for Artificial production.
- They produce about 45kg -100kg per year.
(e) Apis Adamsoni(African bees) :-
Apis adamsoni is a African bees they are of medium size.
- They produce about 4.5kg honey bees yearly from a single colony.
- Their hive is medium size.
(f) Apis Cerana:-
- Apis cerana is Asian bee species.
- They are medium size bee species.
- They live in both plant and forest area.
- They generally make live in plant crack, tree branch and in hill cabes.
- They are very calm in nature.
- Apis cerana plane area yellow in colour but, which lives in forest become big size and black colour.
- They are less fibrocious and kept in bee box for commercial keeping.
- A hive produce about 1kg -5kg honey yearly but in commercial keeping 18-20 kg honey from each honey bee box.
Trigona is very small sized bee species. They are available in the south last hilly area of South Asia. They are generally makes hive in plant crack, bamboo pole wall hole etc.
- They are less honey production species.
- This bee is called demour bee.
- They passes a vestigial wing.
- The body is black in colour.
- They cannot flucks wax from their body making hive.
- The comb is built by a dark material called cerumen .
- They bite enemies.
- They adult live for 15days.
- Their comb is very small and every comb contain about 100gm to 150gm honey.
- This honey bees plays an important role in the pollination of crops.